How common is pregnancy loss? What are the causes?
Pregnancy loss in the general population is common. Most losses occur in the first trimester. As many as 5 % of women have 2 or more early losses; 1-2 % have 3 or more early losses [ref 1]. Well established risk factors for pregnancy loss are: (a) advanced maternal age, (b) anatomic uterine abnormalities (fibroids, septum, etc), (c) chromosome abnormalities of fetus, mother or father, (d) comorbid diseases of the mother (endocrine, immunologic). The acquired antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is also a risk factor for pregnancy loss. The role of inherited thrombophilias contributing to pregnancy loss is less clear.
Are thrombophilias risk factors for pregnancy loss?
a) Acquired Thrombophilias: Repeatedly and clearly positive antiphospholipid antibodies (= APLA) are associated with pregnancy loss [ref 2]. There are a number of tests one can do to look for APLA, but only the first three in the list below are well established risk factors for pregnancy loss [ref 2,3].
- Lupus anticoagulant
- anticardiolipin antibodies
- anti-beta-2-glycoprotein-I antibodies
- anti-phosphatidyl-serine antibodies
- anti-phosphatidyl-inositol antibodies
- anti-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine antibodies.
APLA need to be clearly elevated and repeatedly positive (preferably 3 or more months apart) before they are considered to be relevant / significant.
b) Inherited Thrombophilias: Some of the inherited thrombophilias have been shown to be associated with pregnancy loss: (a) Factor V Leiden and the prothrombin 20210 mutation are slight risk factors for pregnancy loss [ref 2]; (b) Protein C, S, and antithrombin deficiency are uncommon so that, overall, insufficient data exist as to whether they definitely increase the risk for pregnancy loss and, if they do, by how much; (c) Genetic variants in the MTHFR (methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase) gene have, in the past, been thought to be risk factors for thrombosis and pregnancy loss. However, in recent years they have been found to neither cause thrombosis nor pregnancy loss, and, therefore, should not be considered thrombophilias any more [ref 4].
It is important to keep in mind that the risk for pregnancy loss in women with thrombophilia is low: the majority of women with thrombophilia will have a successful pregnancy [ref 5]. To summarize, the potentially relevant inherited clotting disorders to be considered in pregnancy loss, are:
- Factor V Leiden
- Prothrombin 20210 mutation (also referred to as factor II mutation)
- Protein C deficiency
- Protein S deficiency
- Antithrombin deficiency
In women with pregnancy loss and thrombophilia, do antithrombotics prevent future pregnancy losses?
a) APLA: Treatment with heparin plus aspirin in women with a history of pregnancy losses who have APLA leads to a higher live birth rate in a subsequent pregnancy compared to no treatment. Therefore, heparin plus aspirin treatment is recommended in women with pregnancy loss associated with APLA [ref 2,7,8].
b) Inherited Thrombophilias: At present it is not known whether treatment with heparin and/or aspirin in women with a history of pregnancy losses and inherited thrombophilia leads to an increased live birth rate in a subsequent pregnancy [ref 2]. The potential benefit of therapy – i.e. higher live birth rate – needs to be weighed against the potential downsides of treatment – i.e. cost, inconvenience, discomfort, risk for bleeding, skin reactions, heparin induced thrombocytopenia, withholding of epidural anesthesia, induction of labor. An individual decision needs to be made in discussion with the woman.
c) Women with pregnancy loss and no detectable thrombophilia: Data to this date show that there is no benefit of giving heparin and/or aspirin therapy to women with unexplained pregnancy loss who do not have a detectable clotting disorder.
Existing Professional Guidelines
1. ACOG (Am College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists): ACOG has published 2 relevant practice bulletins/ guidelines:
- The ACOG Practice Bulletin in “Inherited Thrombophilias in Pregnancy” states that inherited thrombophilia testing in women who have experienced recurrent fetal loss is not recommended because it is unclear whether anticoagulation reduces recurrences [ref 6].
- The ACOG Practice Bulletin on “Antiphospholipid Syndrome” states that (a) testing for antiphospholipid antibodies is indicated in women with a history of one fetal loss after week 10 of pregnancy, of 3 or more recurrent early losses before week 10, and (b) women with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and a history of stillbirth or recurrent pregnancy loss treatment with the “blood thinner” heparin and low-dose aspirin should be considered. [ref 7].
2. ASRM (American Society for Reproductive Medicine): A clinical practice guideline on recurrent pregnancy loss by the Practice Committee of the organization is in development. I have been told that completion and publication is anticipated sometime before the end of 2011.
3. ACCP (American College of Chest Physicians: ACCP recommends to screen women with recurrent early pregnancy loss or unexplained lat loss for antiphospholipid antibodies and, if positive, treat in subsequent pregnancy with heparin plus aspirin [ref 8, section 9.1.1.]. Given the uncertainty about the role of inherited thrombophilias and pregnancy loss and whether there is benefit treating women with thrombophilia and pregnancy loss with anticoagulation, ACCP does not give any recommendations on this topic.
MY PERSONAL APPROACH
What should the woman WITH pregnancy loss know?
- One or more pregnancy losses are common in the general population.
- The majority of women with 1, 2 or 3 pregnancy losses have a successful subsequent pregnancy WITHOUT any treatment.
- The majority of pregnancy losses is not explained by thrombophilias, but is due to other causes.
- The woman with 3 or more 1st trimester pregnancy losses or 1 or more losses after week 10 should be worked up for a variety of causes (chromosomal abnormalities, anatomic uterus abnormalities, endocrine disorders – diabets and thyroid disease) before being defined as having “unexplained” pregnancy losses.
- If the woman truly has recurrent early or one or more later UNEXPLAINED losses, thrombophilia work-up can be considered. Appropriate testing might be:
- Lupus anticoagulant
- anticardiolipin IgG and IgM antibodies
- anti-beta-2-glycoprotein-I IgG and IgM antibodies
- factor V Leiden
- prothrombin 20210 mutation
- protein C activity (= functional protein C)
- protein S activity (= functional protein S)
- antithrombin activity (= functional antithrombin).
- If one of these thormbophilias is clearly / unequivocally found, then discussion of heparin (unfractionated or LMWH) therapy with or without aspirin can be discussed, weighing all the risks and benefits of treatment.
What should the woman with a known thrombophilia, but WITHOUT a history of pregnancy loss know if she plans to get pregnant?
- The majority of women who have a thrombophilia have uneventful pregnancies.
- Thrombophilias are only very mild risk factors for pregnancy loss.
- A discussion should be held between the physician and the woman whether heparin therapy might be needed to prevent DVT or PE.
- Barely ever is there an indication for antithrombotic therapy purely to prevent pregnancy loss.
A number of support forums for women with thrombophilia and pregnancy loss exist on the internet. Clot Connect has started a support forum, with a subgroup for “Women’s Health and Clotting“.
- Rai R et al. Recurrent miscarriage. Lancet. 2006;368:601-611.
- Bates SM. Consultative hematology: the pregnant patient pregnancy loss. Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2010;2010:166-172.
- Alijotas-Reig J et al. Anti-β2-glycoprotein-I and anti-phosphatidylserine antibodies in women with spontaneous pregnancy loss. Fertility and Sterility 2010;93:2330-2336.
- Rey E et al. Thrombophilic disorders and fetal loss: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2003 Mar 15;361(9361):901-8.
- Rodger MA et al. The association of factor V Leiden and prothrombin gene mutation and placenta-mediated pregnancy complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. PLoS Med. 2010 Jun 15;7(6):e1000292.
- Am College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Practice Bulletin. Inherited thrombophilias and pregnancy. July 2010;number 113, page 1-11.
- Am College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Practice Bulletin. Antiphospholipid Syndrome. Jan 2011;number 118, page 192-199.
- Bates SM et al. Venous thromboembolism, thrombophilia, antithrombotic therapy, and pregnancy: Amercian College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guideline (8th edition). Chest. 2008 Jun;133(6 Suppl):844S-886S.
For Patients: This same information, written for patients and non-health care professionals, can be found here.
Disclosure: I have no financial conflict of interest relevant to this educational post.
Last updated: June 14th, 2011
ClotConnect.org, its contributors, authors, advisors, members and affiliate organizations do not assume any liability for the content of the website, blog and educational materials. Medical information changes rapidly. While information is believed to be correct, no representation is made and no responsibility is assumed for the accuracy of information contained on or available through this web site and blog. Information is subject to change without notice.